Wednesday, June 5, 2013

Greek and Roman Mythology


While mythological characters haven’t been dinner-table topics for quite some time, they are undeniably playing roles in our daily lives. As such, these Greek and Roman mythological characters have enlivened English speeches for centuries. Welcome to the world of mythology!!!

goddess of love and beauty
god of music,poetry,and the sun
god of war
goddess of the moon
god of medicine
goddess of wisdom
god of the sky and agriculture
goddess of fertility and crops
god of wine,ecstacy
god of love
Mother Earth
god of the underworld
god of fire,craftsman for the god
queen of the gods;goddess of marriage
messenger of the gods,travel
queen of the underworld
god of the sea
ruler of the gods

 Zeus,the King
Zeus is acknowledged as the leader of the new generation of gods. He is consistently identified as the sky-god. Many of his attributes and titles are attributed to his functions as the god of the sky, e.g Rainer, Thunderer, Cloud Gatherer, Lightning God, Sender of Fair Winds.

Division of Authority
Zeus and his brothers determine the spheres of their authority: Zeus won the sky; Poseidon, the sea; and Hades, the underworld. The surface of the Earth and Mt. Olympus are neutral territories.

The wife of Zeus, Hera, is considered as the queen of the Olympians. Her name is originally a title which meant “Our Lady” or “Great Lady”. She became greatly associated with the Earth, chiefly with marriage and childbirth. Her Roman name is Juno. Due to her husband’s tendency to womanize, Hera is pictured as a wife who was troubled by her husband’s apparent infidelities. Since she could not directly punish the ruler of the gods, she takes vengeance on his mistresses or even on the children produced from these romances.

Poseidon is primarily the god of the sea but he is also associated with earthquakes and horses. His Roman equivalent is Neptune. Like the sea, Poseidon is unpredictable and easily aroused to anger. He is frequently pictured with a trident, a three-pronged spear which is used by fishermen.

Hestia is the goddess of the family hearth and its fire. By extension, she came to be regarded as the guardian of the home, the family, the local community and the state as the whole. Vesta is her Roman name.

The Vestal Virgins
The rites of Vesta were performed by priestesses who were called the Vestal Virgins; each of whom took a vow of virginity in honor of the goddess they served.

Demeter is the goddess of the grain and the Earth’s fertility in general. Her Roman equivalent is Ceres. Demeter’s marriage to Zeus produced a daughter names Persephone (Roman: Proserpina). Demeter and Persephone represented essentially the same thing: the fertility of the Earth. When a distinction was made, Persephone represented the seed and Demeter, the blossoming grain.

The birth of Artemis marks the second generation of the gods of Olympus. Diana is the Roman equivalent to Artemis. Artemis is the goddess of wild nature and of the animals who live there. She is often portrayed as the huntress with a bow and arrow, but she also carefully protects the animals in her domain. She could be unpredictable, like the open country. She could be benevolent and merciful but also harsh and deadly.

Apollo is a god said to be as complex and mysterious as Zeus. He is the god of reason and moderation, the giver of laws and thus, the rewarder of right action and the punisher of the wrong. He is, along with his sister Artemis, a god of archery and could send disease or cure to humans with his arrow. He was the god of the sun as Artemis is of the moon. He is also the god of poetry and music, and, in what perhaps his best known attribute, prophecy.

Athena is a virgin goddess of domestic arts and crafts, of wisdom and war. She is the patroness of Athens and the protector of the cities, in general. She is known to Romans as Minerva. According to stories, an early goddess of wisdom, Métis, became pregnant by Zeus. It is foretold that her child would produce a son who will overthrow Zeus. To keep the prophecy from being fulfilled, Zeus swallowed Metis as she was about to give birth. Athena, their child, burst forth from his head. Zeus now becomes both the mother and the father of the child and has avoided the consequences of the prophecy.

He is the son of Zeus and Hera and is considered the god of war. He represents the uncontrollable frenzy of battle and all the destruction and horrors of war.

She is the goddess of physical love and passionate desire. Her Roman equivalent is Venus. Some say that she is the daughter of Zeuz and Dione,a daughter of Oceanus. Other claims that she is born from the mating of “aphros” which means foam of the sea. She is married to Hephaestus, but largely due to her nature, she has many affairs.

He is the master craftsman and metal worker of the gods. His forge is always a place of much activity as he designs and produces ingenious and artistic creations.

While Hermes is the youngest of the gods, he had very primitive origin. He is the messenger of Zeus, the herald of the gods, the guide of travelers, the leader of spirits of the underworld, giver of fertility and the patrons of orators, writers, businessmen, thieves and athletes. His Roman name is Mercury. As a messenger and herald of the gods, he is pictured wearing a broad-rimmed hat, and with winged shoes or sandals.

Hades is the god of the underworld. His name means,the “ unseen one”. The Greeks hesitated a lot to mention his name so they often called him Pluto, which means “ rich” or “ wealthy” to refer to both the number of the spirits under his authority and to the fact that all crops grow from beneath the Earth. The Romans borrowed the name Pluto from the Greeks to refer to their god of the underworld. Although, they also call him Dis. His wife is Persephone.

He is the god of wine and by extension, everything associated with it. Dionysus was from the beginning associated with the fertility of the grape vine and gradually this function expanded to include fertility in general ( crop, animal, human).He is in this regard, the male counterpart of Demeter.

Tuesday, June 4, 2013

Ang Katangian ng Wikang Filipino at ng iba pang mga Wika sa Mundo

Sinulat ni: Paulo C. Dorongon

Ang wika ay pantao
          Ang wika ay pantao dahil ito and makataong pamamaraan ng pagpapahayag ng ating mga kaisipan,saloobin o damdamin.Ito rin and pinakakasangkapan ng pagpapalitan ng ideya,kuro-kuro, atbp.Ang tao ay may kakayahang gumamit ng wika dahil napapaunlad niya ito.Nakabubuo siya ng mga tunog na may kahulugan at hindi gaya-gaya lamang.
Ang wika ay arbitrary
          Ang wika ay arbitraryo sa dahilan na ito ‘yong mga salitang pinagkasunduan ng mga tao para gamitin nila sa pang araw-araw na pamumuhay.Dahil sa arbitraryo, nakakabuo ang mga tao ng iba’t ibang salita na sila lamang ang nagkakaunawaan.Isang halimbawa nito ang salitang  “tsibog” na ang ibig sabihin ay kakain na.
Ang wika ay natatangi
          Ang wika ay natatangi sa dahilan na ito ang ating pinakainstrumento sa komunikasyon.Dahil ito’y natatangi ikanga,tayo’y pinagbubuklod-buklod at pinag-iisa para lalo pang paunlarin ang wikang mayroon tayo ngayon.Ito rin ang dahilan kung bakit napapanatili ng bawat isa ang magandang pag sasamahan o pagkakaibigan.Ito rin and dahilan kung bakit tayo’y nakabubuo ng mga ideyang kaakit-akit para mapakinabangan ng ibang taong lubos pang nangangailangan ng kaalaman.
Ang wika ay nagbubuklod ng bansa
          Kung walang wika,wala tayong matatag na bansa.Ang wika ay nagbubuklod ng bansa dahil ( halimbawa) alam natin na noong unang panahon ay sobra ang kalupitan ng mga dayuhan partikular na and mga Kastila.Dahil sa wikang Filipino,binuklod nito ang ating mga ninuno/bayani na isulong ang pag-aalsa sa pamamagitan ng pagsulat ng mg a kwento at iba’t ibang babasahin na parang sila-sila lang ang nagkakaunawaan.Dahil sa walang kamalay-malay ang mga Kastila kung ano ang mga ‘yon,nakamit ng ating mga kababayan ang kanilang inaasam.
Ikanga ang wika at kultura ay ‘di mapaghihiwalay
          Tama! Sa dahilan na ang bawat wika ng mga tao saan mang panig ng mundo ay nakabatay sa kung anong kultura mayroon sila.Dahil din sa kulturang angkin ng kanilang bansa,lubos nila itong napapaunlad dahil pinagbubuklod sila ng kanilang wikang ginagamit.Ano mang kultura mayroon tayo, itong wika ang syang kumukuntrol

Thursday, May 30, 2013

The Teacher as a Reader and the Reader as a Teacher

Topic: Teaching Vocabulary

The National Reading Panel in 2000 recognized the significance of vocabulary knowledge to reading achievement. Many studies reveal that children with a wide vocabulary range often succeed in the reading process, while those who have limited vocabulary often experience comprehension bog down.  Given the importance of vocabulary to reading success and to learning, teachers began to focus more on explicit vocabulary instruction.  In 1983, Chall distinguished between two types of vocabulary needed for reading:  word-recognition vocabulary and meaning vocabulary.
  • Word-recognition vocabulary consists of words that a student can pronounce when seen in print, whether by sight or by use of word attack skills.
  • Meaning vocabulary consists of words that a student can attach appropriate meaning to or define.

Strategies in Teaching Vocabulary

A.    Word Formation Processes
The English language is a very dynamic language.  There are many processes by which new words are added to a language. Teaching students the different word formation processes helps students recognize words and hypothesize about their meanings.
  1. Acronym are words that are formed from the initials of several words
·         RAM - Random Access Memory
·         SCUBA – Self-contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
·         RADAR – Radio Detection and Ranging
·         LASER – Light Amplification of Stimulated Emission of Radiation

  1. Back-formation occurs when words are morphologically interpreted incorrectly
·         peddle - formed from the word peddler (It was incorrectly interpreted as meaning “one who peddles”)
·         lasing - formed from the noun laser; it means the process of using laser 

  1. Compounding is formed by combining two or more pre-existing words together
  • doghouse
  • birdbath
  • pigeonhole
  • bookcase

  1. Blending is formed like compound words, but parts of the combined words are deleted in the process
  • motel - motor + hotel
  • modem - modulator + demodulator
  • camcorder - camera + recorder
  • smog – smoke + fog

  1. Borrowing is the integration of a word from one language into another. Almost 40% of English words are borrowed from other languages
  • cliché (French)  
  • concerto (Italian)           
  • café  (French)
  • yacht (Dutch)

  1. Clipping is the process of shortening a word, and marks the acceptance of an abbreviation as a word in its own right.
  • gym - gymnasium
  • deli - delicacies
  • math – mathematics
  • phone - telephone

  1. Coinage is the creation of a novel or  new word for something, many times something that is new to the language
·         Many brand names of products are coined words: Jell-O, Vaseline, Plexiglas (which is also a blend of plastic, flexible, and glass), and Kleenex are all examples
·         Words may also be formed from the names of people and places, which are known as eponyms
·         For example, sandwich is named after the fourth Earl of Sandwich, who placed food between two hunks of bread to be able to eat and gamble at the same time
·         Another example is use of john as a synonym for the restroom

  1. Derivation is formed by adding derivational morphemes to existing ones The infamous example:
·         anti + dis + establish + ment + ary + an + ism

  1. Functional Shift A new word may also be formed by treating an already existing word as if it were a member of a different syntactic category
·         Meal (n) – has become a verb meal
·         Beach (n) – has become a verb meaning “to get stuck on a beach”

B.    Context Clues.  The meaning of a word may be determined by its environment, the words that surround it, either coming before or after it in the sentence or in the paragraph.
1.     Definition is considered the simplest and most obvious way by which the meaning of a word is revealed.  The be verb is used to equate the term to be defined to the familiar word in the sentence.
·         Biology is a branch of science that deals with the study of living things.

2.     Restatements may be in the form of synonyms, examples, elaboration by the use of modifiers, and pairing closely related words.  It is usually introduced by signal words: that is, for example, such as, like, in the way, that, in other words, what this means, etc.  It may also be signaled by the dash and the parentheses.
·         Many garment companies are downsizing – or reducing the number of employees – in order to save money and increase the amount of profit.
·         The river was full of noxious materials such as cleaning agents from factories and pesticides from the nearby farms.
3.     Synonym is a word that means essentially the same thing as another word.  It is usually preceded by the function word or.  Sometimes the synonym may be found in another sentence within the paragraph.
·         Sports are universal, and very few people have not succumbed, or given in, to their lure at one time or another.
·         Mrs. Barron loves to chat, and her friends are similarly loquacious.
4.     Antonym is the opposite or contrasting word that may serve as a clue to the unfamiliar word.
·         The girl who used to be very vociferous doesn't talk much anymore.
·         Andrea is one of the most supercilious people I know. Her brother, in contrast, is quite humble and meek.
5.     Inference requires reading between lines to see connections and relationships not explicitly stated in a particular passage.
·         Josie received a bauble for Christmas from her great aunt. This she put with her others, a pair of imitation earrings, a fake emerald pendant, and a ring that looked like a ruby.
·         From the lugubrious expressions of people coming out of the theatre, I could tell that the movie had a tragic ending.
6.     Homophones & homographs – homophones are words with the same pronunciation but with different spellings; homographs are words with more than one definition.
 Homophones: Site-sight-cite-scythe    martial-marshal
Rite, right, write                       new-knew
Aisle, I’ll, isle                           course-coarse
 Homographs:  If the judges are fair, our rabbit will win a ribbon at the fair.
Jim hunts, but he does not shoot does.
Andrei didn’t feel well after falling into the well.
7.     Words of Various Disciplines are the basic meaning of specialized vocabulary in a particular subject area.
·         The capital of the Philippines is Metro Manila. (Social Science)
·         His capital for the new business is one million pesos. (Math)
·         The mouse is not working.  Call the technician. (Computer Science)
·         The mouse belongs to the rodent family. (Science)
8.     Multiple Context make the meaning of unfamiliar words clearer and easily understood.
·         Butterflies fly from flower to flower.
·         How high did the boy fly his kite?
·         Airplanes fly regularly from Manila to Hongkong.

C.    Vocabulary Cs
1.     Collocation refers to the combination of words bring about different shades of meaning
·         sugar is sweet
·         sweet face
·         sweet tooth
·         sweet potato
·         sweet talk
·         sweet someone
2.     Cline places related words within a slope to show degrees
Temperature: Boiling/ hot/ lukewarm/ warm/cold/ freezing
3.     Cluster refers to the process of grouping similar or related things
·         LARGE in SIZE - big-great-huge-tremendous-massive-beyond-outside-stupendous-gigantic-gross-colossal-grand
4.     Chain: synonym words are arranged in chains to show gradation of difficulty
·         hunt-seek-trace-track-search-inquire-pursue-look for
Source: M.A Class ( TESL) with Professor Marla Papango,Philippine Normal University